FAMILY FUNCTIONS

 

Schiamberg (1983)

1.         Socialization of children

2.         Economic cooperation & division of labor

3.         Care, supervision, monitoring, and interaction

4.         Legitimizing sexual relations

5.         Reproduction

6.         Provision of status:   Social - familial attributes (SES, location)

                                                Ascribed - birth order

                                                Achieved - based on individual's effort

 

7.         Affecction, emotional support & companionship

 

 

FUNCTIONS & CHARACTERISTICS OF HEALTHY FAMILIES:

 

CALLAGHAN (1987)

 

1.         clearly identified hierarchy

2.         well-defined parental roles

3.         flexibility & adaptability -  Can respond to situational & maturational crises

4.         consistent, clear rules & expectations

5.         consistent affection

6.         consistent limit-setting

7.         open communication, bi-directional

8.         increased degree of support nurturance and acceptance of family members

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

 

Minuchian (1978)

 

1.         Rigidity - lack of flexibility

2.         Lack of individuation - emeshment /loss of autonomy

3.         Extreme detachment

4.         Scape-goating - family member (often child) who is the object of displaced conflict/criticism

5.         Triangulation - Detouring conflict between 2 people by involving a third person, thereby stabilizing the relationship between the original pair

6.         Faulty problem solving skills

7.         Conflict avoidance

8.         Inconsistent application of affection/discipline

9.         Low levels of support/nurturance/acceptance

10.       Increased degree of expressed hostility towards each other/other family members

 

 

 

 


 

BALDWIN-SHAEFFERS CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILY TYPES

 

The Baldwin-Shaeffer (1959) model is predicated on the idea that all families will organize themselves along the dimensions of control and affection.  How a particular family demonstrates control and affection translates into specific parenting/child rearing techniques or procedures. Subsequently, specific child rearing techniques directly impact upon the personality development of the child. All families organize themselves along the dimensions of affection and control which will result in specific child-rearing techniques, approaches, & behaviors. The family will demonstrate a unique pattern of affection, involvement, and supervision/ control which will influence both the development and behavior of the child.

 

DIMENSIONS OF PARENTAL BEHAHVIOR:

 

1. CONTROL

Parental control is conceptualized as the degree to which parents exert control and power over the child, as well as an indicator of the level of direct involvement in the activities of the child. It is defined in terms of the degree of supervision/monitoring of the child's activities, the quality, nature, consistency of discipline, and the parent's need to control the child.       

 

Dimensions of parent control are:

 

      DEMANDINGNESS - The degree to which parents will insist upon age appropriate behavior from child.

 

     STRICTNESS - The degree to which parents will enforce their rules AND will resist child's attempts to 

                               emotionally coerce parents into not carrying out punishment for misbehavior.

 

     INTRUSIVENESS - The degree to which parents will interfere/control the child's activities & interpersonal

                                    relationships.

  

      RESTRICTIVENESS - The degree to which parents will limit both the range of activities in which the child

                                          can engage and the child's opportunities for independence (engaging in activities

                                          away from parents supervision).

                      

      POWER ASSERTION - The degree to which parents will utilize the legitimate power function assigned to

                                             the parental role in order to control the child.

 

2. PARENTAL AFFECTION

      Affection is defined as the amount of love, nurturance, support, and positive value demonstrated 

        towards the child. The degree of affection demonstrated towards the child may range from love-to-

       indifference-to hostility.

 

3.     PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

      Involvement is defined as the degree and frequency of interaction between parent and child, the

      frequency and quality of communication between parent and child, interest in the activities of the child,

      and the quality of interaction between the parent and child. This dimension addresses the frequency/ 

      regularity of interaction, types of mutually-engaged activities , form/style of communication (linear =

      Parent to Child/ transactional = bi-directional, parent <---> child).

 

4. QUALITY OF MARITAL RELATIONSHIP

The Baldwin-Shaeffer model examines the quality of the marital relationship as an indicator of how well the family is functioning. Research evidence indicates that marital discord adversely affects the child and translates into specific child-rearing practices. Conversely, high levels of marital satisfaction and communication will generally result in consistent, positive, and healthy parent-child relationships.

 

 

All families organize themselves along the dimensions of affection and control which will result in specific child-rearing techniques/approaches/behaviors. The family will demonstrate a unique pattern of affection, involvement, and supervision/control which will influence both the development and behavior of the  child.

 

AFFECTION is defined as the amount of love, nurturance, support, and positive value demonstrated towards the child. The degree of affection demonstrated towards the child may range from love-to-indifference-to hostility.

 

INVOLVEMENT is defined as the degree and frequency of interaction between parent and child, the frequency and quality of communication between parent and child, interest in the activities of the child, and the quality of interaction between the parent and child. This dimension addresses the frequency/regularity of interaction, types of mutually-engaged activities , form/style of communication (linear = Parent to Child/ transactional = bi-directional, parent <---> child).

 

CONTROL is defined in terms of the aforementioned characteristics of parental control, as well as including the degree of supervision/monitoring of the child's activities, the quality, nature, consistency of discipline, and the parent's need to control the child.                  

 

                                                  BALDWIN-SHAEFFER FAMILY TYPE MATRIX 

FAMILY TYPE    

    AFFECTION

   INVOLVEMENT     

     CONTROL

CONSISTENT

DEMOCRATIC

      HIGH          

      HIGH

      LOW

INCONSISTENT

DEMOCRATIC

      HIGH

     MODERATE

      LOW

PERMISSIVE

INDIFFERENT

    MODERATELY

      LOW

      LOW         

      LOW

INDIFFERENT

DETACHED

    VERY LOW

      LOW

      LOW

 

REJECTING

NEGLECTING

     ABSENT

      LOW

   VERY LOW

ANTAGONISTIC

     ABSENT

      LOW     

      HIGH

AUTHORITARIAN

      LOW

      HIGH

   VERY HIGH

OVERPROTECTIVE

      HIGH

    VERY HIGH

   VERY HIGH

OVERINDULGENT

      HIGH

    VERY HIGH

   MODERATELY         HIGH


                                     BALDWIN-SHAEFFER PARENTAL BEHAVIOR MODEL

 

Central to this family model is the belief that specific parental behavior results in both specific child-rearing techniques and specific emotional and behavioral outcomes in the child. The home climate is determined by the parent's level of affection for the child, his/her level of involvement, and the specific control dimensions/ techniques utilized. The chart below is a useful guide to the understanding of the inter-relationship between parental behavior and its impact on the child.

 

       PARENT TYPE           PARENTAL BEHAVIOR                   IMPACT

CONSISTENT DEMOCRATIC

HIGH IN AFFECTION

HIGH IN INVOLVEMENT

LOW IN NEED FOR CONTROL CONSISTENT ENFORCEMENT OF RULES/DISCIPLINE

FRIENDLY/ACTIVE/SECURE

GOAL DIRECTED/INDEPENDENT

GOOD FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE

GOOD SELF-CONTROL

INCONSISTENT DEMOCRATIC

HIGH IN AFFECTION

MODERATELY LOW INVOLVEMENT

INCONSISTENT ENFORCEMENT OF RULES

LAX/INCONSISTENT/ABSENT DISCIPLINE

IMPULSIVE

LOW LEVELS OF SELF-CONTROL

MANIPULATIVE

DIFFICULTY WITH AUTHORITY

DISOBEDIENT

INDIFFERENT    

LOW IN AFFECTION

LOW IN INVOLVEMENT

LOW LEVEL OF CONTROL

LOW LEVELS OF MONITOR/

SUPERVISION          

POOR IMPULSIVE CONTROL

ANGRY

SAD/DEPRESSED

AGGRESSIVE

LOW SELF-ESTEEM

REJECTING

NEGLECTING

ABSENT AFFECTION

LOW LEVELS OF INVOLVEMENT/ MONITORING/SUPERVISION

LOW LEVELS OF CONTROL

DEPRESSED

LOW SELF-ESTEEM

ANGRY/AGGRESSIVE

NON-COMPLIANT

ACTING OUT BEHAVIORS:

RUNAWAY/DRUGS/CRIME

ANTAGONISTIC

 

ABSENT AFFECTION

LOW LEVELS OF POSITIVE

INVOLVEMENT WITH CHILD

HIGH NEED FOR CONTROL

DEPRESSION

LOW SELF-ESTEEM

ANGRY/SELF-PUNISHMENT

INCREASED SUICIDAL RISK

AUTHORITARIAN

LOW AFFECTION

LOW LEVELS OF POSITIVE

INVOLVEMENT WITH CHILD

HIGH DEGREE OF CONTROL

 

WITHDRAWN

LOW SELF-ESTEEM

LOW IN GOAL DIRECTION

LOW LEVELS SELF-RELIANCE

LOW LEVELS INDEPENDENCE

OVERPROTECTIVE

HIGH LEVEL OF AFFECTION

HIGH LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT/

SUPERVISION/MONITORING

HIGH DEGREE INTRUSIVENESS

HIGH DEGREE RESTRICTIVENESS

SUBMISSIVE

DEPENDENT

DIFFICULTY ASSERTING NEEDS

LOW LEVELS SELF-RELIANCE

LOW LEVELS INDEPENDENCE

OVERINDULGENT

HIGH LEVEL OF AFFECTION

HIGH LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT

LOW DEGREE OF DEMANDINGNESS

IRRESPONSIBLE

DIFFICULTY SEPARATING FROM PARENTS

LOW LEVELS SELF RELIANCE

LOW LEVELS INDEPENDENCE

 


BAUMRIND'S MODEL OF PARENTAL BEHAVIOR

 

1. Baumrind (1967;1971;1986;1991) examined the relationship between parental behavior and children's competence. Operationally defined parenting behavior along dimensions of CONTROL, COMMUNICATION, DEMAND FOR MATURITY,  & NURTURANCE (AFFECTION/ACCEPTANCE/SUPPORT).  Research revealed 3 parent  types and subsequent outcome on child’s behavior. Found correlation between parenting style/personality and child’ level of social competence.

 

                                                                           PARENT TYPE/STYLE

 

  AUTHORITARIAN

  AUTHORITATIVE

   PERMISSIVE

CONTROL

       HIGH

       HIGH

      LOW

CLARITY OF

COMMUNICATION

       LOW

       HIGH

      HIGH

MATURITY DEMANDS

       HIGH

       HIGH

      LOW

NURTURANCE

       LOW

       HIGH

      HIGH

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                          CHILDREN’S LEVEL OF COMPETENCE

 

  AUTHORITARIAN

   AUTHORITATIVE

   PERMISSIVE

CHILDREN'S

CHARACTERISTICS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WITHDRAWN

 

LACK OF ENTHUSIASM

 

SHYNESS (GIRLS)

 

HOSTILITY (BOYS)

 

LOW ACHIEVEMENT

MOTIVATION

 

LOW SENSE OF

COMPETENCE

(ABILITY)

SELF-ASSERTIVE

 

INDEPENDENT

 

 

FRIENDLY

 

COOPERATIVE

 

HIGH ACHIEVEMENT

MOTIVATION

 

HIGH COMPETENCE

IMPULSIVE

 

LOW SELF-RELIANCE

 

LOW SELF-CONTROL

 

LOWER LEVELS OF AGE APPROPRIATE

BEHAVIOR

 

AGGRESSIVENESS

 

LACK OF RESPONSIBILITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         MACOBY & MARTIN'S CLASSIFICATION OF PARENTING PATTERNS

 

This model is predicated on the earlier research of Diane Baumrind (1976). According to Baumrind, parental child rearing practices influence the child's progress towards becoming a capable adult. Parents can foster individuation and psychological maturity by HOW they exercise and demonstrate their authority, their affection for the child, and their interest and involvement with the child.

 

Research has confirmed that patterns of parental authority can be described in terms of how DEMANDING and RESPONSIVE parents are towards the child. PARENTAL DEMANDINGNESS refers to establishing expectations and rules of conduct for children and monitoring their commitment to these expectations and their compliance with these rules. PARENTAL RESPONSIVENESS refers to being sensitive to children's needs, being supportive of the child's efforts, and being interested in the thoughts, feelings, and activities of the child.  Working with these dimensions, Baumrind (1968,1971,1976) was able to demonstrate 3 separate parental styles - AUTHORITATIVE, INDULGENT, AUTHORITARIAN. It was the further work of Macoby & Martin (1983) which identified the NEGLECTING parent style.

 

AUTHORITATIVE PARENT - These parents are caring and warm, make appropriate demands of the child and execute reasonable punishments for violations of rules. They tend to use inductive discipline which involves explaining the purpose of rules, the costs for violation of the rules, and an openness to discuss and modify the rule. Research has found that children from these homes are self-reliant, socially competent, and report fewer problems.

 

AUTHORITARIAN PARENT - These parents exercise firm control on the basis of power assertion. They set forth rules in an arbitrary fashion, are more likely to make excessive demands, and to utilize harsh punishments. Often, they believe that children should be in a subordinate role and should have their autonomy severely limited. These parents may be unresponsive to the needs of the child and may be low in affection for the child. Child with authoritarian parents demonstrate lower levels of social competence and self-reliance. Child often wants to avoid the parent from whom he/she feels alienated.

 

INDULGENT PARENT - These parents are responsive to their children but do not place few demands or restrictions on the child. Parents believe that complete trust in the child and a minimal amount of restrictions is most beneficial to the parent-child relationship. Parent's philosophy is to glorify freedom and to perceive that restrictions limit growth. Children from these homes have been shown to have difficulty with impulsivity and goal setting. They have been found to have more behavior problems and a less positive orientation toward school. They may be more socially competent & self-reliance than children from authoritarian & neglecting homes.

 

NEGLECTING PARENT - These parents are unresponsive to the needs, feelings, and activities of the child. They exert little control over the child and are disengaged from child rearing responsibilities. These parents are detached from the child, indifferent to his/her needs, display little interest in the child's activities, spends little time in direct interaction with child. Children from these homes have been found to have significantly more problems related to school misconduct, drug use, delinquency, anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints. They were less socially competent, self-reliant, received poorer grades, and have less favorably attitudes toward school. 

 

 

                                                           MACOBY & MARTIN MODEL (1983)

                        

                                             PARENTING STYLES AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR

 

           ACCEPTING

          RESPONSIVE

     CHILD-CENTERED

           REJECTING

       UNRESPONSIVE

   PARENT-CENTERED

DEMANDING

 

  CONTROLLING

  RESTRICTIVE

 

 

  

 

  AUTHORITATIVE

 

  RECIPROCAL

  HIGH IN 2-WAY

  COMMUNICATION

 

 

  AUTHORITARIAN

 

  POWER ASSERTIVE

UNDEMANDING

 

  LOW IN CONTROL

  PERMISSIVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

                

 

  INDULGENT 

 

  PERMISSIVE

  LAISSEZ-FAIRE

 

 

  NEGLECTING

 

  INDIFFERENT

  UNINVOLVED

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                          MACOBY & MARTIN MODEL (1983)                                          

                                            PARENTING STYLES AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR

 

  PARENTAL TYPE                                                                                            CHILD’S BEHAVIOR

 PERMISSIVE INDULGENT         

1. Rules not enforced

2. Rules not clearly communicated

3. Yields to coercion by child

4. Inconsistent discipline

5. Few demands/expectations for mature, independent  behavior

6. Ignores/accepts misbehavior

7. Hides annoyance/impatience/anger toward child

8. Moderate warmth

 Impulsive

 Aggressive

 Non-compliant

 Domineering

 Low in self-reliance

 Low in achievement orientation

 Low self-control

 Low in goal-directed activities

AUTHORITARIAN

1. Rules rigidly enforced

2. Rules not clearly explained

3. Does not yield to coercion

4. Confronts & punishes bad behavior

5. Shows anger & displeasure

6. View of child as dominated by uncontrolled antisocial impulses

7. Child's desires & opinions not considered or solicited

8. Persistent in enforcement of rules in the face of  opposition & coercion

9. Harsh, punitive discipline

10.Low in warmth & positive involvement

11.No cultural events or mutual activities planned

12.No educational demands of standards

Conflicted-irritable children

Fearful, apprehensive

Moody, unhappy

Easily annoyed

Passively hostile & guileful

Vulnerable to stress

Alternates between aggressive,   unfriendly behavior & sulky

Withdrawal

Aimless

NEGLECTING

1. Unresponsive to child's basic needs for affection

2. Undemanding

3. Uninvolved in child's activities

4. Does not monitor child

5. Indifferent towards child

6. May ignore child

7. Unconcerned about child's welfare

8. Low need/interest to control child

9. Low effort in attempts to control child

10.Emphasis placed on importance of parent's life.

Depressed

Low self-esteem

Feels unloved & unlovable

aggressive/angry/hostile

non-compliant

 

 

 

 

 

           

AUTHORITATIVE

1. Firm enforcement of rules

2. Does not yield to child coercion

3. Confronts disobedient child

4. Shows displeasure & annoyance in response to child's bad behavior

5. Shows pleasure & support of child's constructive  behavior

6. Rules clearly communicated

7. Considers child's wishes & solicits child's opinions

8. Alternatives offered

9. Warm, involved, responsive

10.Expects mature, independent behavior appropriate for the child's age

11.Cultural events & joint  activities planned

12.Educational standards set & enforced

Energetic-friendly children

Self-reliant

Self-controlled

High-energy level

Cheerful/Friendly relations with peers

Copes well with stress

Interest & curiosity in novel situations

Cooperative with adults

Tractable

Purposive

Achievement-oriented

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 BECKER'S MODEL OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE AND DISCIPLINE

 

Beginning with the work of an earlier theorist, three dimensions of parental behavior can be identified (Becker 1964).  The warmth versus hostility dimension is defined at the warm end by accepting, affectionate, approving, understanding, child-centered, frequent use of explanation, positive response to dependency behavior, high use of reasons in discipline, high use of praise in discipline, low use of physical punishment, and (for mothers) low criticism of husband.  The hostility end of the dimension is defined by the opposite characteristics.

 

The restrictiveness versus permissiveness dimension is defined at the restrictive end by: many restrictions and strict enforcement of demands in the areas of sex play, modesty behavior, table manners, toilet training, neatness, orderliness, care of household furniture, noise, obedience, aggression to siblings, aggression to peers, and aggression to parents.

 

Anxious emotional involvement versus calm/detached i defined at the anxious end by high emotionality in relation to child, babying, protectiveness, and solicitousness for the child's welfare.

 

Anxiety in parents results from many factors, either those directly related to their role as parents or those not connected with their parental role.  A mother may be afraid she is not adequately prepared to be a mother.  A father may be afraid of what his child will do if he does not let the child know (regularly) who is the boss.  A father may be a tyrant with his children because he feels threatened about losing his job at the factory.  A mother may be indulgent because she does not want the neighbors to think she is a cruel person.

 

                                                           PARENTS LOW IN LOVE-SUPPORT

 

(1)        NEGLECTING PARENTS with low support, low power, and low anxiety are characterized by a lack of concern for their children.  They are usually hedonistic and tend to leave children to their own devices.  A significant percentage of delinquents come from this type of parent.  These parents lack warmth and are either neglectful in exercising parental control or highly inconsistent in the use of discipline.  Children raised by overly hostile and restrictive parents are more likely to internalize their own angry feelings.  They usually exhibit aggressive and poorly controlled behavior.

 

(2)        RIGID CONTROLLING PARENTS are those who have low support, high power, and low anxiety.  They are both restrictive and hostile and tend to produce counter-hostility in their children.  Under such conditions, children tend to become neurotic.  These children are socially withdrawn, shy, anxious, and highly self-punishing because they cannot express their hostility behaviorally.  This combination of low support, high power, and low anxiety fosters resentment and is generally experienced as turmoil.

 

(3)        ANXIOUS NEUROTIC PARENTS are those with low support, low power, and high anxiety.  They transfer their anxiety to their children.  They were probably the product of rigid controlling or hostile authoritarian parents themselves.  Their anxieties are focused inward.  They believe the world is out to get them.  Children from these homes are motivated toward antisocial behavior; they are socially aggressive and punitive.

 

(4)        HOSTILE AUTHORITARIAN PARENTS are those with low support, high power, and high authority.  Like rigid controlling parents, they are restrictive and punitive.  Their authoritarianism, however, is primarily a result of anxiety.  They are generally frustrated people who try to appease their feelings by striking out at their children.  The children of hostile authoritarian parents in general tend to be like those from rigid controlling home especially, socially withdrawn and self-punishing.


 

                                                        PARENTS HIGH IN LOVE-SUPPORT

 

(1)        OVERPROTECTIVE PARENTS with high support, high power, and high anxiety focus their control on their children's behavior.  They are quick to respond to a child's misbehavior.  They use the threat of withdrawal of love and other emotional tactics in controlling their child's behavior.  Some of these methods may seem irrational, but are more effective than physical punishment.  Overprotective parents usually set high standards for their children.  Their children are compliant and dependent on their parents for approval.  They often have strong consciences to protect themselves from a withdrawal of love.

 

(2)        INDULGENT PARENTS are those with high support, low power, and high anxiety.  They set few limits or restrictions.  They are quick to remove obstacles from the child's life.  but they exert little control.  They tend to be warm, supportive and unconditionally accepting.  The children from indulgent homes are extremely independent.  They are frequently aggressive, not only toward their peers but also toward their parents and other adults.  Due to minimal limits on behavior and an unconditional acceptance of the child, the child does not develop a typical conscience, being non-compliant and mischievous.

 

            The two remaining parent types, democratic and organized effective, are better than the other six parent types.  Both democratic and organized effective parents are low in anxiety and high in support or love, although the organized effective parent uses high power assertion, while the democratic parent uses power sparingly.  They will be discussed in more detail.

 

(3)        DEMOCRATIC PARENTS are those with high support, low power, and low anxiety.  They are warm and supportive of their children, and like indulgent parents, use little power and assertion.  Behavior limits and ground rules are mutually accepted, set by parents and children.  Characteristics of the democratic family is the family council with equal say and power.  Democratic and indulgent parents differ as a function of anxiety or emotional involvement.  Indulgent parents act in fear, while democratic parents express confidence in their children and reflect an attitude of cooperation.

 

            Democratically raised children are creative and highly independent.  Their independence is funded on confidence as opposed to rebellion--expressed by the child from an indulgent home.  These children are socially outgoing and accepting of others.  Their sense of achievement is based on a self-rewarding structure.  Their conscience is usually based on a golden rule philosophy with respect for the rights of others.  Democratically raised children are typically friendly, like to do their "own thing," and allow other the same privilege.  They have been assigned attributes such as being rowdy and lacking obedience and submissiveness.

 

(4)        THE ORGANIZED EFFECTIVE PARENT has high support, high power, and low anxiety.  Their parent-set limits are structured, but unlike the overprotective parent, fewer limits are imposed.  These limits are rationally selected for the child's benefit.  Organized effective parents are not as intense in response to misbehavior.  They are methodical in choosing a course of action, basing their decision on what is best for the child.  Organized effective parents are confident, warm, supportive, and success-oriented people.

 

            The characteristics of organized effective children are like those of their parents.  They have high achievement striving and are responsible.  They lack the independence and creativity of children from more democratic families.  Organized effective children have a strong conscience and are compliant and respectful to persons in power or authority.  In short, they are more the model child as prescribed by our Western civilization.

 

           

 

 

                                     BECKER’S PARENT TYPES BY PARENTING BEHAVIOR

 

Affection

Authority

Worry

Democratic

High support

Low power

Low anxiety

Indulgent

High support

Low power

High anxiety

Organized effective

High support

High power

Low anxiety

Overprotective

High support

High power

High anxiety

Rigid controlling

Low support

High power

Low anxiety

Hostile authoritarian

Low support

High power

High anxiety

Neglecting

Low support

Low power

Low anxiety

Anxious neurotic

Low support

Low power

High anxiety

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

CHESS & THOMAS'S PARENTING STYLE MODEL (1987)

 

1. Identified 6 parenting styles based upon the behaviors a parent brings to the child rearing situation from those that are a reaction to a child's  behavior.

 

2.     These different styles will NOT determine a child's psychological development

.

3.     It is the quality of the match between parenting behaviors and a child's temperament that is DECISIVE.

 

4.      CONCEPT OF GOODNESS OF FIT. -  How well do parent & child get along together.

 

5.  Poorness of fit would occur when parental demands and expectations are excessive and are not compatible with a child's temperament and abilities.

 

6. Poorness of fit produces stress and often is marked by other developmental problems. Vaughn (1992) found a significant relationship between    infant/child's (studied 555 children, 5 months-to-42 months) temperament    and security of attachment to parents at all ages.

 

7. Exact mechanism of how do child's temperament and parental behavior  interact and what will be the resulting behavior not completely  understood.

 

PARENT TYPES

 

   SECURE       - These parents are confident of their techniques. If they   make a mistake, they are able to change their approach with no harm done. They assume they will cope successfully and  look on parent as exciting.

 

   INSECURE    -  This parent believes that everything they do inevitably  influences their child's destiny. Often feel overwhelmed  by role of parent; anything to do with child perceived as  a major stressor.  Do not see that when things go well it  was partly due to them --> external locus of control.

 

   INTIMIDATED -  This parent demonstrates a consistent lack of ability to  be firm (strictness) with their children. Motivation to appease children may be fear of doing a "bad job" or "not  being loved" by child OR anxiety about role of parent &  ability to perform role OR guilt about being firm & denying  child's wishes OR stress (role conflict/role overload/role  expectation).

 

   OVER-INTERPRETIVE -  This parent feels a strong need to analyze and explore every nuance of a child's thoughts, feelings, and actions.  Feel compelled to examine in depth the complex psychological meanings and motivations behind their child's behavior.

 

   VICTIMIZED  -  This parent feels betrayed, unappreciated, and as if life  is unfair when things do not work out as planned. They view child's problems/misbehavior as proof of the unfairness of life, especially in light of all that they have sacrificed and done for the child.

 

   PATHOLOGICAL - This parent suffers from some form of mental illness which   interferes with their role functions of parent. This person  may not be emotionally available to child à may not be able to provide affection, supervision, and interaction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                               RICE'S (1996) MODELS OF PARENTAL CONTROL

CONTROL TYPE

 PARENTAL BEHAVIOR

IMPACT ON ADOLESCENT

AUTOCRATIC

1. Parent makes all decisions.

 

2. Expected to follow demands & decisions.

 

3. No input from child sought or solicited           

 

4. Child not to make decisions for self.

 

5. May use harsh & strict punishments.

 

6. May demonstrate low levels of love, affection or approval

 

 

1 Produce hostility & dependency

 

2 Resent parent control

 

3 Less likely to identify with parent

 

4 May become openly rebellious/aggressive/hostile

 

5 May model aggressive behavior in peer  relationships

 

6 May become dependent as result of lack of  opportunity to

  make  independent decisions.

 

AUTHORITATIVE

1. Parents exercise authority

 

2.  Demonstrate care/concern through guidance

 

3.  Encourage independence, responsibility,   decision-making.

 

4. Parents provide reasoned explanations for   rules

 

5.  Adolescent encouraged to become   independent of family.

 

6. Home characterized by love, respect,  acceptance, fairness, consistency,   appreciation.

1. Adolescent more likely to conform/adhere to   family rules.

 

2. Less conflict with parents.

 

3. More mature & independent decision making.

 

4. Higher level of self-control & less impulsivity.

 

5. More responsible & independent behavior.

 

6. Greater identification with parents/less with   peers.

PERMISSIVE

1. Parents provide little guidance & direction.

 

2. Receive few restrictions & expected to make  own  decisions.

 

Parents may over indulge child & place no   limits on them

 

4. May provide inadequate supervision,   monitoring/limit setting

 

5. Parent maybe indifferent to child/have low affection for child.

1. Without limits may feel insecure.

 

2. Poorly equipped to deal with impulses/ frustrations or to act

     in responsible manner.

 

3. May become impulsive/self-centered/ irresponsible.

 

4. May interpret lack of control as disinterest or   rejection.

INFLEXIBLE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Parents are unyielding/refuse to change   ideas & behavioral responses.

 

2. Will not discuss different points of view or allow disagreements.

 

3. Expect children to act, think, and be alike.

 

4. Are  perfectionistic  with high levels of expectations.

 

5. Highly critical and often display their displeasure towards child.

 

6. May have age inappropriate expectations for children. May expect child to take on more responsibility than ready or may continue to keep child dependent by denying age appropriate opportunities.

 

1. May develop high levels of anxiety centering around a belief

      of not being  good enough.

 

2. May try to become people pleasers to avoid or reduce

    criticism of parent.

 

3. May develop poor self-concept & l low  self-  esteem as a

    result of constant criticism.

ERRATIC/

INCONSISTENT

1. Fail to provide consistency in discipline or control.

 

2. Fluctuate in control style.

 

3. Parents may disagree about discipline techniques/form/need to discipline.

 

4. Father may exercise more authority/control over sons.

 

5. Mother may exercise more authority/control over daughters.

1. Greater risk for impulsive, poorly self-controlled child.

 

2. May not be able to anticipate consequences of their actions.

 

3. More disobedience & conflict with parents.

 

4. Lacking clear guidelines may become confused & insecure.

 

 

 

 

                                           SMITH'S (1988) MODEL OF PARENTAL CONTROL

 

In his research on parental control techniques, Smith (1988) outlined seven methods of control. He based his model on the observations of 1109 parent-adolescent encounters of 109 mothers and 88 fathers. The methods of control were:

 

1. POWER ASSERTION:    Parent used physical punishment, deprivation, &   threats.

 

2.     COMMANDS:                Parent used imperative statements not accompanied by  punishment or overt threats

                                             of punishment.

 

3.     LOVE WITHDRAWL:   Parent punishes or threatens to punish a child by  means of temporary coldness or

                                             rejection.

 

4.     SELF-ORIENTED INDUCTION:  Parent suggested possible gains or costs the child might experience as a                                                              result  of a choice  made or behavior demonstrated.

 

5.     OTHER-ORIENTED INDUCTION: Parent suggested religious/ethical reasons, attraction/approval of others, or

                                                               personal obligations as reasons for a choice to be made or behavior

                                                               demonstrated.

 

6.     ADVICE:  Parent suggested to child how he/she may more efficiently, effectively, or easily accomplish what is

                       desired by parent.

 

7. RELATIONSHIP MAINTENANCE: Parent appeals to the child to maintain  positive orientation toward the parent.

 

The study found that relative frequency of parental control techniques used were:

         command                                       34%

         self-oriented induction                   31%

         advice                                             14%

         relationship maintenance               10%

         power assertion                                8%

         other-oriented induction                   1%

         love withdrawal                                 1%

 

These findings are important because research generally indicates that:

 

1. Parental explanations & reasoning (induction) are strongly associated with the child internalizing ethical and moral principles.

 

2. Use of physical punishment, deprivation, and power assertion (threats) is associated with children's aggression, hostility, and delinquency.

 

3. Parents & adolescents who exchange ideas and information are most successful at conflict resolution. (McCombs et. al 1988; Portes et. al 1986