Media & Disability Bibliography Project
(1930 to present)

Criteria for inclusion on the list:

* Articles should have some connection to both media issues and legally defined disabilities. (Some attitude and history studies are included as well.)

* Articles may be from academic journals, books,  government reports, language and reporting guides, and full academic paper presentations.

* Self promotion encouraged. Please tell us what you have published or presented in this area. Book chapters will be listed as separate entries unless the entire book is about disability and media issues.

* The goal is a comprehensive listing. The project will not assess the validity or reliability of the research articles included; that will be for individual researchers to decide.

* Send the citations in APA style, via email if at all possible.

* Send citations to Beth Haller at bhaller@towson.edu

Last updated: 9-22-10
 

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A

Ability Magazine.  (2010).  Terminology Guidelines http://www.abilitymagazine.com/terminology.html

Adams, R. (2001). Sideshow U.S.A : freaks and the American cultural imagination. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. (2003). Conformity and Conflict: Wheelchair Athletes Discuss Sport Media. Vol. 20 Issue 3, p246.

Adelman, R. (2005). 'When I Move, You Move': Thoughts on the Fusion of Hip-Hop and Disability Activism. Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1. http://www.dsq-sds.org.

Advocado Press. (2001). To Ride the Public's Buses: The Fight that Built a Movement. Louisville, Ky: Advocado Press.

Advocado Press. (1991). Becoming Media Savvy. Louisville, Ky: Advocado Press.

Aguado, A. L., & Alcedo, M. A. (1991). Tratamiento de la discapacidad en la prensa Asturiana. [Disability treatment in the press of Asturias] Psicothema (Universidad de Oviedo), 3(1), 175-198.

Albrecht, G. L., Seelman, K. D, & Bury, M. (eds.) (2001). Handbook of Disability Studies. Sage publishers.

Albrecht, G. L. (1999). Disability humor: What's in a joke? Body & Society, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 67-74.

Alsop, R. (1987). Disabled people are winning more roles in television ads. Wall Street Journal, December 3, 1.

Altman, B. M. (1994). Thoughts on visibility, hierarchies, politics & legitimacy. Disability studies quarterly, 14:2, 48-51.

Altman, B. M. (1981). Studies of attitudes toward the handicapped: The need for new direction. Social Problems, 28(3), 321-337.

Alvarado, M. C., Andrés del Campo, S., & González, R. (2007). Discapacidad: Estigma y concienciación. Análisis de la representación de las personas con discapacidad en la comunicación publicitaria. [Disability: stigma and awareness. Analysis of the representation of persons with disability in advertising communication] Comunicación y Discapacidades: Actas do Foro Internacional, 27-48.

 

Álvarez, A. (2003). La función social de la publicidad de la ONCE. [The social function of the National Organization of Spanish Blind (ONCE) advertising] Madrid: Escuela Libre Editorial.

 

Álvarez, A. (2008). Persuadir para integrar. El papel de la publicidad en la integración social de las personas con discapacidad [The role of advertising in the social integration of people with disabilities]. In J. A. Ledesma (Ed.), La imagen social de las personas con discapacidad. Estudios en homenaje a José Julián Barriga Bravo (pp. 89-117). Madrid: Ediciones Cinca.

American Society of Newspaper Editors. (1990). Reporting on People with Disabilities. Washington, D.C.: ASNE.

Antonak, R. F. (1988). Methods to measure attitudes toward people who are disabled. In H. E. Yuker (Ed.) Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities. New York: Springer. pg. 109-126.

Antonak, R. F. (1985). Societal factors in disablement. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 28: 188-201.

Antonak, R. F. and Linveh, H. (1988). The Measurement of Attitudes toward People with Disabilities. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

Arnett, R.C. (1993). Ethical congruence: classroom accessibility.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Kansas City, Mo.

Arnoff, F.N. & Mehl, M. (1963). Body image deterioration in paraplegia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 137, 88-92.

Arnold, K. (1999). Cancer strikes the comic pages. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91(6: March 17):499-500.

Arnold, R. (1986). An Examination of the Des Moines Register's Coverage of Issues Affecting Persons with Physical Disabilities. Unpublished master's thesis, Iowa State University.

Atkinson, P. (1996). Disability on air : the contribution of Flying Start Pictures. NZ Journal of Disability Studies, no3, pp. 98-108.

Auslander, G. & Gold, N. (1999). Media reports on disability: a binational comparison of types and causes of disability as reported in major newspapers. Disability & Rehabilitation, Vol. 21 Issue 9.

Auslander, G. & Gold, N. (1999). Disability terminology in the media: A comparison of newspaper reports in Canada and Israel. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 48 Issue 10.

Australian Journal of Communication. (2003). Special issue on communication issues for people with disabilities. G. Goggin and C. Newell (Eds.).

B
Barker, R.G.; Wright, B.; Meyerson, L.; & Gonick, M.R. (1953). Adjustment to physical handicap and illness: A survey of the social psychology of physique and disability (Revised Edition). New York: Social Science Research Council.

Barnartt, S. & Scotch, R. K.. (2001). Disability Protests: Contentious Politics, 1970-1999. DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Barnes, C. (1992). Disabling Imagery and the Media, BCODP Derby and Ryburn Publishing, Halifax.

Barnes, C. (1991, Winter). Discrimination : disabled people and the media. Contact, pp. 15-16.

Barnett, J., & Hammond, S. (1999). Representing disability in charity promotions. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 9, 309-314.

 

Bartmann, S. (2002). Der behinderte Mensch im Spielfilm [The Disabled Person in Films]. Münster: LIT.

Barton, L.; Ballard, K.; & Fulcher, G. (1992). Disability and the necessity for a socio-political perspective. Durham, NH: IEEIR, Monograph 51.

Bas, D. (1988). Media and disability. Paper from 16th World Congress of Rehabilitation International, Tokyo.

Basore, P. (1988, November). Barriers to education. Washington, D.C., The News Media  and Disability, pp. 8.

Baum, R. B. (1998). Humor and Disability, The Bridge, 8(4), 3-5.

Beatson, P. (1996). The future of disability television: an open letter to NZ On Air. NZ Journal of Disability Studies, no3, pp. 86-97.

Becker, H.S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

Bee, M (2000) Autism on Film http://autistic-people.com/autism-movies.html.

Bellin, J. D. (2005). Monstrous Minds: Fantasy film and mental illness in Framing monsters: Fantasy film and social alienation. Carbondale, Ill.: SIU Press.

Benavides, J. (2005). Medios y discapacidad. La presencia de la discapacidad en los medios de comunicación [The presence of disability in media]. Telos: Cuadernos de comunicación, tecnología y sociedad, 62, 89-95.

Benavraham, T. (1985). Public opinion and the media: How do persons with communication difficulties and handicaps make an opinion from the media to vote. Unpublished political science paper, Brooklyn College, NY.

Benson-Garcia, L. (2001, August).  Disability as Diversity in Public Relations Textbooks. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Washington, D.C.

Benson-Garcia, L. (2000, August). The Disabled and Promoting Census 2000: A Key Target or Lost in the Crowd? Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Phoenix.

Bernt, J.P. and Greenwald, M.S. (1993). Coverage of gays, lesbians, bisexuals and the HIV/AIDS: A content analysis of seventeen metropolitan daily newspapers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Kansas City, Mo.

Berrington, E. & Honkatukia, P. (2002). An Evil Monster and a Poor Thing: Female Violence in the Media. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology & Crime Prevention, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p50.

Berube, M. (1997, May 30). The cultural representation of people with disabilities affects us all. Chronicle of Higher Education, Vol. 43 Issue 38, p. B4.

“Beyond Afflication: The Disability History Project.” (1998, May). www.npr.org/programs/disability

Bhargava, M. (1988) Communication Media and Information Technology in Aid of Visually Handicapped. Psycho-Lingua, 18(1): 11-21.

Biddle, RiShawn. (1998). Wheelchair humor [John Callahan]. Icon Thoughtstyle Magazine (December): 44-45.

Biklen, D. (1987). The culture of policy: Disability images and their analogues in public policy. Social Problems, 15(3), 515-535.

Biklen, D. & Bailey, L. (eds.) (1981). Rudely Stamp'd, Imaginal disability and prejudice. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America.

Bintig, A. (1984). Behinderte in Publikumszeitschriften [The Disabled in Magazines]. Bielefeld. (Unpublished habilitation treatise).

Blanco, J. (1995-1996). La discapacidad a través de la publicidad [Disability through advertising]. Tabanque: Revista Pedagógica, 10-11, 201-212.

Blatt, J. (1977). Small changes and real difference. In M. Harmonay (Ed.), Promise and Performance: Children with Special Needs (pp. 11-22). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Bogdan, R. (1988). Freak show. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Bogdan, R., Biklen, D., Shapiro, A. and Spelkoman, D. (1982). The disabled: Media's monster. Social Policy, 13, 32-35.

Bogdan, R. & Biklen, D. (1977). Handicapism. Social Policy, 7, 14-19.

Bogdan, R. & Taylor, S.J.. (1989). The social construction of humanness. Social Problems, 36(2), 135-148.

Boggs, R. (1999). Performers with Disabilities. Where Are the Disabled Characters? Who Portrays Them? http://www.rickboggs.com/disability/pwd.html.

Bombaci, N. (2006). Freaks in late modernist American culture : Nathanael West, Djuna Barnes, Tod Browning, and Carson McCullers. New York : Peter Lang.

Bond, B.J. (2008, Nov.). The Invisible Minority: Portrayals of Physical Disability on Children's Television Programming. Paper presented the National Communication Association annual meeting, San Diego.

Bonnstetter, C.M. (1986). Magazine coverage of the mentally handicapped. Journalism Quarterly, 623-626.

Borchert, M. H. (2000, November). Many Faces of the Deaf: Shifting Understandings of Communication Technologies and Techniques. Paper presented the National Communication Association annual meeting, Seattle.

Borchert, M. H. (1998, August). The origins of closed captioning: The National Bureau of Standards and television for the deaf. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Baltimore.

Borchert, M. H. (1997, August). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Defining Deaf People and Their Rights. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Chicago.

Borchert, M. H. (1996, August). The Time was Ripe: The Great Society Era and Development of Closed Captioned Television. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass  Communication annual meeting. Anaheim, Calif.

Borjal, A. A. (1988). The role of media in disability prevention, rehabilitation and equalisation of opportunities for disabled persons (Philippine experience). Paper from 16th World Congress of Rehabilitation International, Tokyo.

Bosse, I. (2006). Behinderung im Fernsehen [Disability in Television]. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag.

 

Bosse, I. (2007). Heimliche Stars oder Kometen aus einem fremden Universum [Secret Stars or Comets from a Foreign Universe]. In: merz 4, S. 56-61.

 

Bosse, I. (2007). Menschen mit Behinderung im Fernsehen [People with Disabilities in Television]. In: Geistige Behinderung 1,  S. 52-62.

Bowe, F. (1978). Handicapping America. New York: Harper & Row.

Bower, E. M. (Ed.). (1980). The handicapped in literature: a psychosocial perspective. Denver: Love.

Boyce, T. (2006). Journalism and expertise. Journalism Studies, Vol. 7, No. 6. pp. 889-906.

Boyle, E., Millington, B. & Vertinsky, P. (2006, June). Representing the female pugilist: Narratives of race, gender, and disability in Million Dollar Baby. Sociology of Sport Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 99-116.

Brain, R. (1979). The decorated body. New York: Harper & Row.

Braithwaite, D. & Thompson, T. (eds). (2000). Communication and People with Disabilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Braithwaite, D. O. & Labrecque, D. (1993). Responding to the Americans with Disabilities Act: Social and communicative implications of physical disability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Miami, Fla.

Bramlett-Solomon, S. (1989). Bringing Cultural Sensitivity into Reporting Classrooms. Journalism Educator, 44(2), 26-28.

British Film Institute. (2004). Disability Imagery: A teaching guide to disability and moving image media. http://www.bfi.org.uk/education/resources/teaching/disability/.

British Government. (2003). Images of disability annual report. London: Department for Work and Pensions. http://www.disability.gov.uk/images_of_disability/report2003/.

Brown, I. (1994). Perception of humor in cartoon riddles by adults with intellectual disability. Perceptual and Motor Skills
78(3/PT1):817.

Burd, G. (1999, August). Disability visibility: Cartoon depictions of Bob Dole. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, New Orleans.

Burd, G. (1977). Aged and handicapped seek human quality and public service in the media: Mass communications patterns of the new minorities. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Madison, Wis.

Bury, M.R. (1979). Disablement in society. International Journal of Rehabilitation, 2:1, pp. 34-4

Buschmann, G. (2003). Das Menschenbild (in) der Werbung [The Idea of Man in Advertising]. In: merz 4, S. 48-57.

Byrd, E.K. (1990). A study of biblical depiction of disability. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 21:4, 52-53.

Byrd, E.K. (1989). A study of film depiction of specific characteristics of characters with disability in film. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 20:2, 13-15.

Byrd, E.K. (1988). Theory regarding attitudes and how they may relate to media portrayals of disability. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 20:4, 36-38.

Byrd, E.K. (1979). Magazine articles and disability. American Rehabilitation, 4:4, 18-20.

Byrd, E.K. & Elliot, T.R. (1985). Feature films and disability: A descriptive study. Rehabilitation Psychology, 30(1), 47-51.

Byrd, E.K. & Pipes, R.B. (1981). Feature films and disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, January/February/March, 51-53, 80.

Byrne, P. (2001). The butler(s) DID it - dissociative identity disorder in cinema. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (1): 26-29.

Byrnes, J. (1990, September 14). Fighting myths starts with awareness, USA Today, p.13A.

C
Callahan, J. (1998). Will the Real John Callahan Please Stand Up? William Morrow & Co. publishers.

Callahan, J. (1989). Don't Worry, He Won't Get Far On Foot: The Autobiography of a Dangerous Man. Vintage Books.

Campbell, C. and Hoem, S. (2001). Prime Time's Disabled Images. Television Quarterly 32.1.

Carson, D. (1995, Winter/Spring). Hollywood's handicap. Kaleidoscope 30 pp. 15-18.

Carver, V. and Rodda, M. (1978). Disability and the Environment. New York:  Schocken Books.

Charlton, J. I. (2000). Nothing About Us Without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment. University of California Press.

Chemers, M. (2002). Le Freak, C'est Chic: The Erotocizing Stare and the Changing Face of Disability in Performance. Paper presented at the Society for Disability Studies conference, Oakland, Calif.

Cheung, F. M. (1990) People Against the Mentally Ill:  Community Opposition to Residential Treatment Facilities. Community Mental Health Journal, 26(2):  205-12.

Cherney, J. (2000, November). Cure Commodified: Ableism, Messianic Medicine, and Nuveen's Christopher Reeve Commercial. Paper presented to the National Communication Association, Seattle.

Cherney, J. (2000, November). Eroticizing Disability: The Collision of Sex and Cyborgs in Cronenberg's 'Crash. Paper presented to the National Communication Association, Seattle.

Chivers, S. & Markotic, N. (2010). The Problem Body: Projecting Disability on Film. Ohio State University Press.

Chivers, S. (2002). The Intersection of Age and Disability on Film: Robert Aldrich's Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? Paper presented at the Society for Disability Studies conference, Oakland, Calif.

Christiansen, J. B. & Barnartt, S. N. (1995). Deaf President Now!: The 1988 Revolution at Gallaudet University. DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Church, D. (2007, June). Speculations on the Fantastic Film and Disability Representation. Paper presented at the Society for Disability Studies annual meeting, Seattle.

Church, D. (2005). Examining the Role of Disability in Herzog's Even Dwarves Started Small. Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4.

Clare, E. (2009, June). Reflections on Intersectionality and the “The R-Word Campaign.” Paper presented at the Society for Disability Studies annual meeting, Tucson, Ariz.

Clark, J. (2002, February 22). A leg to stand on. www.joeclark.org/caseypieretti.html.

Clarke, J. N. (1992) Cancer, Heart Disease, and AIDS:  What Do the Media Tell Us About these Diseases? Health Communication, 4(2):  105-120.

Clogston, J. S. (1994). Satisfaction with Assistive Technology and Media Use by Deaf Residents of Northern Illinois. Paper presented to the Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Atlanta, Ga.

Clogston, J. S. (1993). Changes in coverage patterns of disability issues in three major American newspapers, 1976-1991. Paper presented to the Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Kansas City, Mo.

Clogston, J. S. (1993). Media use by deaf residents in northern Illinois. Paper presented to the Society for Disability Studies annual meeting. Seattle, Wash.

Clogston, J. S. (1992). Coverage of persons with disabilities in prestige and high circulation dailies. Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Montreal, Canada.

Clogston, J. S. (1992). Fifty years of disability coverage in the New York Times.  Paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Montreal, Que.

Clogston, J. S. (1992) Journalists' attitudes toward persons with disabilities: A survey of reporters at prestige and high circulation dailies. Paper presented to the Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Atlanta,  Georgia.

Clogston, J. S. (1991). Reporters' attitudes toward and newspaper coverage of persons with disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.

Clogston, J.S. (1990). Disability Coverage in 16 Newspapers. Louisville: Advocado Press.

Clogston, J.S. (1989). A theoretical framework for studying media portrayal of persons with disabilities. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Minneapolis, Minn.

Cohen, S. (1972). Folk Devils and Moral Panics. London: McGibbon and Kee.

Coleman, D. (1997, April 20). Models with the ability to break down barriers. New York Times, p. 43.

Comer, R.J. & Piliavin, J.A. (1972). The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction: The other side. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23:1, 33-39.

Cooke, C., Daone, L., & Morris, G. (2000). Stop press! How the press portrays disabled people. London: Scope.

Coopman, S. (2002). Metaphors of Disability: Communication, Oppression, and Empowerment. Paper presented at the National Communication Association annual meeting, New Orleans.

Copeland, G.A. (1999). Face-ism and primetime television. JOBEM, 33(2), 209-214.

Corbett, J. & Ralph, S. (1994, June). Empowering adults: The changing imagery of charity advertising. Australian Disability Review.

Corbett, J., Jones, E., & Ralph, S. (1993). A shared presentation: Two disabled women on video. Disability, Handicap & Society, 8(2), 173-186.

Corker, M. and Shakespeare, T. (2002). Postmodernity: Embodying Disability Theory Continuum, London. Disability.

Crimp, D.  (1992). Portraits of people with AIDS. In L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, and P. Treicher (eds.), Cultural studies (pp. 117-133),  New York: Routledge.

Cross, S.  (2010).  Mediating Madness: Mental Distress and Cultural RepresentationPalgrave Macmillan.

Crow, L. (2000). Helen Keller: rethinking the problematic icon. Disability & Society, Vol. 15 Issue 6.

Crutchfield, S. (1997, Fall). Film Studies and Disability Studies. Disability Studies Quarterly, 17:4, 284-87.

Cumberbatch, G. & Negrine, R. (1992). Images of disability on television. London: Routledge.

Cooke, A. and Reisner, N. (1991) The Last Minority. Washington Journalism Review, 13:10, 14-18.

Covington, G. A. (1988, November). Sensitivity key to interviewing. The News Media and Disability. Washington, D.C.: The News Media Education Project/A National Workshop. p. 1.

CQ Researcher. (1993). `Stigma busters' target media stereotypes. Vol. 3 Issue 29, p684.

A crawl-in at the Capitol. (1990, March 26). Time. 25.

Cypher, J. (2002). Disability and Standpoint Epistemology: A More Perfect Union. Paper presented at the National Communication Association annual meeting, New Orleans.

D
Dahl, M. (1993), The Role of the Media in Promoting Images of Disability -- Disability as Metaphor: The Evil Crip. Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 18, No. 1.

Dahl, M. (1987). The cultural production of the disabled role identity in contemporary Canadian society. MA thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

Dajani, K. F. (2001). What's in a name?: terms used to refer to people with disabilities.  Disability Studies Quarterly, 21 no3, www.dsq-sds.org.

Dalton, L. (1989, May). At Gannett, workforce diversity means including the disabled. Gannetteer, pp. 6-9.

Darke, P. A. The Elephant-Man (Lynch,David, Emi-Films, 1980) - An Analysis From A Disabled Perspective. (1994). Disability & Society 9 (3): 327-342.

Darke, P. (1998). Understanding Cinematic Representation of Disability in The Disability Reader: Social Science Perspectives. Edited by Tom Shakespeare,  Cassell, London.

Darke, P. (2003). White Sticks, Wheels and Crutches: Disability and the Moving Image. British Film Institute, London

Davidson, M. (2003). Phantom Limbs: Film noir and the disabled body. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 9:1/2, pp. 57-77.

Davies, C. (1991, Winter). Disability and TV: an unequal relationship. Contact, pp. 6-7.

Davis, L. (1999). “J’accuse!: Cultural imperialism – Ableist style”, Social Alternatives 18, pp. 36-41.

Davis, R.H. and Davis, J.A. (1985). TV's image of the elderly. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Davis, T. (2003). First Sight: Blindness, Cinema and Unrequited Love. Journal of Narrative Theory, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 48-62.

Deakin, A. (1996, September 20). Body language. Marketing Week, Vol. 19 No. 26, p. 37.

Deffner, G. (1982). Erfahrungen eines Redakteurs [Experiences of an Editor] . In: Kagelmann, H. Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rosmarie (Hrsg.): Massenmedien und Behinderte [The Disabled and the mass media]. Weinheim: Beltz, S. 47-53.

 

Degenhardt, S. (1999). Darstellung von Lebensperspektiven: Rollenmuster sehgeschädigter Menschen in Spielfilmen [Representatino of Life-Prospects: Rolemodels of visually Impaired People in Films]. In: Warzecha, Birgit (Hrsg.): Medien und gesellschaftliche Stigmatisierungsprozesse [Media and Social Processes of Stigmatisation]. Hamburg: Lit, S. 57-88.

DeJong, G. (1993). The Americans with Disabilities Act: A study in bipartisan and consensus development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Disability Studies, Seattle, Wash.

Desportes, G. (2003). La publicité...aussi handicapée? [Advertising…also disabled?] Être. Handicap Information, 68-69, 41-43.

Devlieger P. J.,  Baz T., & Drazen, C. (2000). Mental retardation in American film: A semiotic analysis. Semiotica 129
(1-4): 1-28.

Devlieger, P.  (1999).  From handicap to disability: Language use and cultural meaning in the United States.  Disability and Rehabilitation, 21(7), 346-354.

Devlieger P. J. (1998). Representations of physical disability in colonial Zimbabwe : the Cyreme Mission and Pitaniko, the Film of Cyrene. Disability & Society, 13 no5, pp. 709-724.

Devlieger, P., Baz, T., & Drazen, C. (1997, August). Images of Mental Retardation in American Film: Narratives, Semiotics, and Historical Perspectives. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Chicago.

Díaz A., L. (2007). La representación de la discapacidad en los medios de comunicación [Disability representation in media]. Comunicación y Discapacidades: Actas do Foro Internacional, pp. 57-76.

Dickinson, R.J. (1996, May 15). The power of the paralympics. American Demographics, p. 15.

Dickson, T. (1994). How JMC education rates in its efforts to sensitize sudents to ableism issues. Paper presented to the Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Atlanta, Ga.

Dickson, T. V. (1993). Sensitizing students to racism in the news. Journalism Educator, 47(4): 28-33.

Diefenbach, D. L. (1997). The portrayal of mental illness on prime-time television. Journal of Community Psychology, 25 (3), pp. 289-302.

Dietl, D. (1988, Summer). They won anchor roles with talent. Worklife, 1, p.4.

DiGiovanna, James. 1998. Twisted [John Callahan interview]. Amazon Books (June 1): http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/subst/categories/humor/jun198%2Dcallah an%2Dinterview/002-6087831-4050605.

Dillon, C., Byrd, K., & Byrd, D. (1980). Television and disability. Journal of Rehabilitation. October/November/December, 67-69.

Disability Now. (2002, April). Tell it like it is: questioning people's perceptions and challlenging the media's portrayal of disabled people, p. 31.

Disabilityfilms. (1994). Films involving disability. http://www.disabilityfilms.co.uk/.

Disability Studies Quarterly. (2005, Summer). Forum: Million Dollar Baby, Vol. 25, No.3.

Doddington, K. Jones, R. S. P., & Miller, B. Y. (1994). Are attitudes to people with learning disabilities negatively influenced by charity advertising? : an experimental analysis.  Disability & Society, 9 no2,  pp. 207-222.

Donaldson, E. (2005). The Psychiatric Gaze: Deviance and Disability in Film. Atenea, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 31-48.

Donaldson, J. (1981, March). The visibility and image of handicapped people on television. Exceptional Children, 47:6, 413-416.

Donaldson, J. (1976, Summer). Channel variations and effects on attitudes toward physically disabled individuals. AV Communication Review, Vol. 24 (No. 2):135-144.

Donaldson, J., & Martinson, M. (1977, March). Modifying attitudes toward physically disabled persons. Exceptional Children, 337-341.

Donovan, C. K. (2003, July/August). Supercrips and poster children, Clamor 22, p. 54.

Dorries, B., Haller, B., & Rahn, J. (2002). Media Labeling Versus the Disability Community Identity: A Study of Shifting Cultural Language. Paper presented at the National Communication Association annual meeting, New Orleans.

Dorries, B. & Haller, B. (2001, October). The News of Inclusion: A Narrative Analysis, Disability & Society.

Douglas, M. (1970). Natural Symbols. New York: Pantheon.

Dougherty, P.H. (1986, May 14). Advertising: TV spot for deaf viewers. New York Times, p. D26.

Dourado, P. (1990, August 16). Parity not charity. Marketing, pp. 26-27.

Driedger, D. (1989). The Last Civil Rights Movement: Disabled Peoples' International.  St. Martins Press.

Drimmer, F. (1983). Very Special People. NY: Amjon.

Dummer, G. M. (1998). Media Coverage of Disability Sport. Palaestra,  Vol. 14 Issue 4, p. 56.

Dworkin, G. and Dworkin, R. B. (1982). The Minority Report. Second Edition. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

E
Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association (1992). Understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act. Jackson Heights, NY: Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association.

Eayers, C., Ellis, N., & Jones, R. (1993). Which label? An investigation into the effects of terminology on public perceptions of and attitudes towards people with learning difficulties. Disability, Handicap & Society, 8 no2, pp. 111-127.

Eberly, S. S. (1988). Fairies and folklore of disability: changelings, hybrids and the solitary fairy. Folklore, 99(1), 58-75.

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